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Emerging Technologies 2018 Session Listing

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Session E1: Advanced Materials

Start Time: 13:30, Wednesday, May 09
Room: Sutcliffe B
Chaired by Yi-Hwa Liu, Yale University (

  • 13:30 Rehan Kapadia, University of Southern California (

    Compound semiconductors on anything

  • 13:50 Giuseppe Greco, National Research Council, Italy ( with E. Schilirò, R. Lo Nigro, I. Deretzis, A. La Magna, G. Nicotra, F. Roccaforte, F. Iucolano, S. Ravesi, P. Prystawko, P. Kruszewski, M. Leszczyński, R. Dagher, E. Frayssinet, A. Michon, Y. Cordier, and F. Giannazzo

    2D materials integration with nitrides for high frequency applications

    Graphene (Gr) integration with Al(Ga)N/GaN heterostructures has been recently proposed to implement a Hot Electron Transistor (HET), with Gr working as the ultrathin base and the Al(Ga)N/GaN 2DEG as the emitter [1,2]. Although THz operation has been predicted for Gr base HETs, achieving the targeted performances ultimately depends on the structural and electrical properties of the interfaces. Here, two approaches were explored to fabricate Gr/Nitrides heterostructures: the transfer of Gr grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on catalytic metals (Cu) [3], and the direct CVD growth of Gr on AlN and AlGaN/GaN templates on Si, SiC or sapphire substrates, as well as on bulk AlN [1,2]. Furthermore, different strategies were considered to obtain a base-collector barrier with optimal hot electrons transmission, i.e. the atomic layer deposition of ultra-thin dielectrics (Al2O2, HfO2) or the transfer of thin MoS2 films onto Gr [4]. Finally, arrays of HETs were fabricated by integration of these elementary building blocks. Vertical current transport across the heterostructures was studied by electrical measurements on device test structures and by local CAFM analyses [2,5,6]. In addition, XRD, STEM/EELS, XPS, LEED, Raman and AFM analyses were used to investigate the heterostructures structural/chemical properties. These experimental information were compared with ab-initio DFT calculations of the Gr/Nitride interfacial properties.


    [1] F. Giannazzo, G. Fisichella, G. Greco, A. La Magna, F. Roccaforte, B. Pecz, R. Yakimova, R. Dagher, A. Michon, Y. Cordier, Phys. Status Solidi A, 1700653 (2017). [2] A. Zubair, A. Nourbakhsh, J.-Y. Hong, M. Qi, Y. Song, D. Jena, J. Kong, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, Nano Lett. 17, 3089 (2017). [3] G. Fisichella, G. Greco, F. Roccaforte, F. Giannazzo, Nanoscale, 6, 8671 (2014). [4] G. Fisichella, E. Schilirò, S. Di Franco, P. Fiorenza, R. Lo Nigro, F. Roccaforte, S. Ravesi, F. Giannazzo, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9, 7761-7771 (2017). [5] G. Greco, F. Iucolano, F. Roccaforte, Appl. Surf. Sci. 383, 324-345 (2016). [6] G.Greco, P. Fiorenza, F. Iucolano, A. Severino, F. Giannazzo, F. Roccaforte, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9,35383-35390 (2017).

  • 14:10 Guangrui (Maggie) Xia, University of British Columbia (

    Thermal thinning and Raman spectroscopy in the study of 2D black phosphorus

    2D black phosphorus (BP) is a promising material for ultra-thin and flexible electronic and photonic applications. So far, there have not been an effective method in depositing uniform and high quality 2D BP samples, which have been fabricated by thinning from bulk BP. We report a new controllable and scalable approach to prepare high-quality few-layer black phosphorus, which is thermal sublimation. Uniform and crystalline 2 to 4-layer BP with an area from 10 to 1,000μm2 was prepared with this method. No micron scale defects were observed. The uniformity and crystallinity of BP samples after thermal thinning were confirmed by Raman spectra and Raman mapping. The sublimation rate of BP was around 0.18 nm / min at 500 K and 1.5 nm / min at 550 K. Both room and high temperature Raman peak intensity ratio Si/A2g as functions of BP thickness were established for in-situ thickness determination and control. A fast method to determine the BP crystal orientation by angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy with 442 nm excitation will also be presented.

  • 14:30 Antoine Fleurence, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (

    Epitaxial silicene on ZrB2(0001): a 2D allotrope of silicon

    Two-dimensional materials are of great interest for the miniaturization of the electronic devices and the realization of new functionalities. In this perspective, silicene, a graphene-like two-dimensional honeycomb structure made of Si atoms, offers new opportunities to scale down the Si-based nanotechnologies. The analogy of silicene with graphene is reflected by the existence of Dirac cones in the calculated band structure of free-standing silicene. However, in contrast to graphene, silicene was only fabricated in epitaxial forms with electronic and structural properties deviating from those of the free-standing form. Among the few substrates on which silicene has been experimentally observed, (0001)-oriented zirconium diboride (ZrB2) thin films grown on Si(111) have the unique capability of promoting the spontaneous and self-terminating growth of a silicene sheet made of atoms segregating from the Si substrate. In this talk, I will present the structural, electronic and chemical properties of epitaxial silicene, which are stemming from the particular sp2/sp3 hybridization of the orbitals in the two-dimensional allotrope of silicon.

  • 14:50 Feng Xiong, University of Pittsburgh (

    Tuning electrical and thermal transport in two-dimensional materials via electrochemical intercalation

    Layered two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2 have shown great promise for nano- and opto-electronics. The interlayer separation in MoS2 (~0.65 nm) provides perfect sites to accommodate guest species such as alkali metal ions (Li+) through a process known as intercalation. Recently, intercalation has been shown to be an effective technique to reversibly tune material properties of layered 2D films.


    In this work, we report an in-situ platform to electrochemically intercalate Li ions into the interlayer spacing of ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets, controllably tuning their electrical and thermal properties. Our in-situ optical and Raman illustrate the dynamics of the electrochemical intercalation process and reveal a reversible 2H to 1T phase transitions in MoS2 upon Li intercalation and de-intercalation. Through Hall measurement, we notice a 100x increase in carrier concentration in Li-intercalated MoS2 due to charge transfer.


    We also study cross-plane thermal transport in MoS2 upon intercalation using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR). We find that the thermal conductance decreases by a factor of ~7-9x upon lithiation, and is fully reversible upon de-intercalation.


    This capability to reversibly engineer the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials through intercalation is promising and could enable exciting opportunities in optoelectronics, transparent electrodes, energy harvesting and storage.

  • 15:10 Byron Gates, Simon Fraser University (

    Extending the strategies for modifying the surfaces of semiconductor materials and devices

    The interfaces of semiconducting materials and their oxides are integral to the design of fabrication routes for preparing freestanding semiconductor materials, such as components in microelectromechanical systems, or the preparation of interfaces for electronic devices that serve as electronic, mechanical or other types of chemical and biochemical sensors. A variety of strategies are used to modify the surfaces of these materials either during or following fabrication processes. The properties that are desired from these interfaces include tuning their ability to repel or retain water, to overcome stiction during fabrication processes or subsequent applications, to resist fouling from biochemical species, to tune the electronic and/or electrochemical properties of their interfaces, and to improve the durability of the underlying materials. A strategy for modifying these materials is introduced in this contribution that are enabling a new approach to tuning the properties and uses of semiconductor materials. These surface modifications are demonstrated for a variety of applications and surface chemistries.

  • 15:30 COFFEE BREAK (Mt. Curie Foyer, Sutcliffe Foyer)


  • 15:50 Faisal Mohd-Yasin, Griffith University (

    Sputtered AlN and ZnO thin films on 3C-SiC/Si substrates for piezoelectric applications

    Aluminum Nitride (AlN) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited on a variety of substrates such as silicon, glass, sapphire etc. In this talk, I present the DC and RF sputtering of the said films on epitaxial cubic-silicon carbide-on-silicon substrates. The later were fabricated in-house at Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre. The effects of the sputtering parameters towards growing highly c-axis structures will be elucidated. The sputtered AlN and ZnO films are suitable for piezoelectric applications. This conclusion is supported by the values of the structural, morphological and mechanical parameters of these materials.

  • 16:10 Hasina Huq, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley ( with H. Orta and J. Castillo

    Investigation of gallium-based thin films for bio-sensor applications

    GaN is a wide energy band gap semiconductor material which shows chemical and mechanical stability, and high tolerance temperature behavior. It is an appropriate candidate to monitor the harmful gases such as methanol, nitrogen and hydrogen. Thermochemical stable high temperature gas sensors using GaN nanostructures are fabricated by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Using the magnetron sputtering system GaN thin films are deposited on Sapphire (Al2O2) and silicon (Si) substrates. During the annealing process, the thin films are heated to a specific temperature (up to 850°C) where recrystallization can occur. The samples are held at that temperature for a fixed period, then cooled down to room temperature. The process is done very slowly to produce a refined microstructure; thus the crystallinity of the grown thin films is improved. It exhibits superior performance due to better uniformity of the surface. sapphire (Al2O2) substrates. The electrical characteristics and the surface morphology of the thin films are investigated by using a X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an atomic force microscopy (AFM). The methodology to fabricate the wide band gap (WBG) semiconductor thin films at lower pressure and lower temperature with better crystal quality is still challenging.

  • 16:30 Marco Rahm, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern ( with J. Kappa, K.M. Schmitt and D. Sokoluk

    Grating modulators for terahertz coded aperture imaging

    In terahertz science, imaging technologies display the highest technological potential, although they currently lack of data acquisition speed which bars them from a number of key applications on the commercial market. A promising step to overcome these limitations was the introduction of coded aperture imaging techniques into the terahertz frequency domain. Pursuing the ultimate goal to develop imaging terahertz spectroscopes over a wide frequency range, the key challenge is the implementation of spatial light modulators with wide spectral modulation bandwidth and sufficient modulation contrast.


    Here, we present a spectrally broadband modulator concept based on a switchable grating in Littrow configuration [1]. We demonstrate that such a modulator can potentially modulate terahertz waves in a frequency range from 1.7 THz to 3 THz at a modulation depth of more than 0.6. Furthermore, we numerically study coded aperture imaging of a binary image and its reconstruction. As a great advantage, the approach allows to dynamically alter the pixel size of the modulator by adjusting the number of micromirrors that define a pixel. By this means, also aperiodic grating structures can be implemented.


    1. J. Kappa, K. M. Schmitt, and M. Rahm, Opt. Express 25, 20850 (2017).

  • 16:50 Toru Aoki, Shizuoka University ( with K. Takagi, T. Takagi, T. Okunoyama and A. Koike

    High count rate CdTe photon counting imaging sensor

    We have reported the photon counting imaging sensors by using CdTe compound semiconductor with energy discrimination function. It has good image quality for hard X-ray imaging, but the dynamic range is so low because of its low count late limitation. The pulse width of each pulse generated from each X-ray photon is around several hundred nano-second from 1mm thick of CdTe diode sensor. But the conventional signal processing using charge sensitive amplifier and pulse shaper is so slow around 1μs or more. The dead time is so high in X-ray imaging fluxion condition, it is very difficult to apply X-ray imaging and CT. We developed new count method for high count rate using pulse analysis of rise part by fully high speed digital pulse processor. In this paper, we will report the detail of this method and signal processing LSI. We developed direct current — digital converter by using charge injection method from CdTe X-ray sensor diode. The ASIC include this CD convertors and other digital functions. We will demonstrate X-ray imaging and CT by using this sensor.

  • 17:10 Yvon Cordier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ( with Y. Cordier, R. Comyn, E. Frayssinet, M. Lesecq, N. Defrance and J-C. DeJaeger

    On the advantages of a lower growth temperature for GaN HEMTs on Silicon

    Lower growth temperature is generally considered as a drawback for achieving high crystal quality heteroepitaxial III- Nitrides, but in the case of GaN on Silicon, the necessity to reduce the nucleation temperature of AlN gives molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) the opportunity to demonstrate high performance high frequency devices like Al(Ga)N/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Compared to metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), the control of the interface between the AlN nucleation layer and the substrate is easier and the reduced growth temperature allows to obtain a more electrically resistive interface while keeping good crystal quality. Furthermore, thanks to the high purity of ammonia-MBE, compensation doping is not necessary to achieve resistive buffer layers and we have shown that further reducing the growth temperature of AlN within the nucleation and stress mitigating layers has a noticeable impact on the lateral and vertical buffer leakage currents with resulting vertical breakdown voltage up to 740V in 2 μm thick structures. As a consequence, the buffers of MBE grown HEMT structures exhibit low RF propagation losses (below 0.5 dB/mm up to 70 GHz) while structures regrown by MOVPE on MBE AlN-on-Si templates confirm that the thermal budget is critical for achieving a high resistivity.

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