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Emerging Technologies 2018 Session Listing

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Session E3: Nanomaterials and Energy Technologies

Start Time: 13:30, Thursday, May 10
Room: Mt. Currie South
Chaired by Guangrui (Maggie) Xia, University of British Columbia (gxia@mail.ubc.ca) and John Madden, University of British Columbia (jmadden@ece.ubc.ca)

  • 13:30 Terry J. Hendricks, NASA (terry.j.hendricks@jpl.nasa.gov)

    A universe of energy: emerging technologies to expand our energy "toolbox" for planet earth, our solar system, and beyond

    Spacecraft power technologies surround our daily lives. Piezoelectrics in our shoes; thermoelectrics (TE) in the ground, industry, automobiles, and spacecraft; concentrated solar photovoltaics and solar thermal systems to power our homes and industries are prevalent as never before. Thermoelectric and solar technologies have key benefits and strengths in many terrestrial and military energy recovery applications, such as potential modularity, high reliability, and solid state performance requiring little or no operational maintenance.

     

    New TE materials are being developed at smaller length-scales and with new nano-composite materials (including Ni/La3Te4, Ca9Zn4.6Sb9, and NiSb2Sn) to support next-generation energy harvesting and next-generation RTG power system opportunities. The latest advanced and demonstrated TE materials (skutterudites, La3-xTe4, Zintls) will be discussed to show new trends, requirements, and remaining challenges. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed high-efficiency, high-power-flux thermoelectric (TE) modules using skutterudite materials and nano-scale and micro-scale design techniques for high-specific-power thermoelectric generators (TEG) critical for terrestrial waste energy recovery (WER) applications. These new skutterudite-based TE modules with small cross-sectional footprints (i.e., area) and high packing factor have demonstrated high power levels (>11 W), uniquely high module-level power fluxes greater than 3 W/cm2, and high efficiency (>9%) at working temperature differentials of approximately Th = 440°C to Tc = 15°C. JPL is also developing new advanced minichannel heat exchangers and micro-scale evaporators to integrate with the new TE systems in advanced energy recovery systems enhancing energy management and efficiency in terrestrial applications. This presentation will examine current and potential future use of thermoelectric technology and systems based on nano-scale material advancements for proposed NASA deep-space missions to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Europa, Titan, and Enceladus and beyond, and transitioning to Earth-based applications in automotive, industrial processing, and aircraft.

     

    NASA JPL is also developing the latest high-temperature solar photovoltaic (PV) technology for potential future Venus missions. These high- temperature solar photovoltaic cells are being developed to operate continuously at >300°C for 6 months and survive at 465°C for up to 1 month, while converting the red-shifted solar spectrum of Venus into useful electrical power. Researchers expect these PV cells will be compatible with Venus’ sulphuric acid environments.

     

    These technologies demonstrate how NASA-driven technology development is flowing down to a wide-spectrum of Earth-based power system applications, such as thermoelectric-driven energy recovery systems and high-temperature solar PV cells applicable to concentrate solar power systems.

  • 13:50 Adam Duong, Université du Québec à Trois Rivières (Adam.Duong@uqtr.ca)

    Materials design for the development of energy and nanotechnology

    With the depletion of non-renewable energy sources, effective methods for storing and converting renewable energies into usable energy are the prior attention for researchers. In this context, the need for new materials capable of efficiently storing and converting renewable energies is essential. Coordination polymers are one of the advanced classes of materials for such applications due to their versatile structures and properties depending on organic and inorganic moieties. In this study, we have designed a series of isostructural two-dimensional Metal-Organic Polymers (MOP) using a rich N-polyaromatic ligand with various metals to produce materials that are valuable for solar cells, batteries, sensors and optoelectronic applications. MOPs prepared with our approach display reversible chromic behaviours confirmed by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state UV-Vis spectroscopy. They also show interesting bandgaps for light harvesting as determined by theoretical calculations. To explore the isostructurality of MOPs, we incorporated two different metals into a structure to create Mixed Metal-Organic Polymers (MMOPs). The addition of various metals in the same structures allows us to tune and improve the properties of materials.

  • 14:10 Andrzej Moscicki, Amepox Microelectronics Ltd. (amepox@amepox.com.pl) with A. Kinart and M. Abo Ras

    New thermal management solution with sinterable TIM materials

    Formulations contained mixture of micro and nano size filler start to be new way for improving its technical parameters. At this way is possible to improve electrical, mechanical as well as thermal properties of polymer composites for electronic packaging purpose. Especially the last one (thermally conductive) is one of the largest problems connected with actual electronic and microelectronics systems. The very important is removing of heat generated by active elements, particularly by the power elements. The most so far widespread technical solutions in the range of high thermally conductive layers (Thermal Interface Material - TIM), are compositions on the base of organic adhesives containing as a fillers the particle of silver in the powder or flake shapes with the reason that silver has very high thermally coefficient (ov. 420 W/mK). In the frame of research and development work Amepox prepared TIM compositions based on silver flakes, nanosilver and epoxy resin with a very high thermal conductivity even close 100 W/mK. All information about samples and results of our measurement will be present in the conference paper.

  • 14:30 Gary Leach, Simon Fraser University (gleach@sfu.ca)

    New strategies for single crystal plasmonic nanostructures and plasmon-based solar energy harvesting

    Plasmon-based solar energy conversion relies on absorption and charge separation at rectifying, metal/dielectric interfaces. Plasmon decay into hot electrons can undergo internal photoemission (IPE) and injection into an adjacent dielectric material, generating useful photocurrent and voltage determined by the metal/dielectric material pair. Here, we describe our work to optimize plasmonic photovoltaic devices on smooth and nanostructured Ag/ZnO interfaces and identify the requirements for high quantum efficiency structures. We have (i) modelled the capture of solar radiation by plasmonic metal/dielectric structures using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation methods, (ii) fabricated test devices, (iii) evaluated their optical, rectifying, and photovoltaic response, and (iv) characterized their materials properties using electron microscopy, spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. We describe the challenges and opportunities of this and related technologies and introduce a new bottom-up approach to deposit single crystal epitaxial metal films and nanostructures from solution. While this chemistry allows for the subtractive manufacture of nanostructure through ion beam milling, it also enables additive crystalline nanostructure using lithographic methods such as electron beam lithography to enable novel, large area, metamaterial arrays and high aspect ratio crystalline nanostructure. We anticipate that this new approach will have significant impact on this and other new plasmon-based nanotechnologies.

  • 14:50 Michael Adachi, Simon Fraser University (mmadachi@sfu.ca)

    Colloidal quantum dot lasers and solar cells

  • 15:10 COFFEE BREAK (Mt. Curie Foyer)

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  • 15:30 John Madden, University of British Columbia (jmadden@ece.ubc.ca)

    Ionic skin--towards smart, compliant and active skin for robots and wearables

  • 15:50 Karen Kavanagh, Simon Fraser University (kavanagh@sfu.ca)

    Transmission He ion microscopy

    We will describe experiments with a modified He+ ion microscope to monitor milling rates, channeling, beam steering, and diffraction through thin semiconducting materials.

  • 16:10 Shankar Rananavare, Portland State University (ranavas@pdx.edu) with S.R. Darmakkolla

    Prospects of copper nanowire self-assembly for interconnect applications

    In the mid-nineties, researchers at IBM pioneered fabrication of copper-based interconnects that are currently in wide use. This electroplating method employs patterned carbon doped oxide (CDO) covered in copper diffusion barrier that is necessary to prevent migration of copper in silicon. As the scaling of transistor continues, the thickness of the diffusion barrier is becoming comparable to the copper film deposited, thereby significantly increasing undesirable high impedance and electromigration effects.

     

    In this talk, we will explore a hybrid method (bottom-up and top-down) to self-assemble copper nanowires for potential interconnect applications. It exploits magnetic Ni-coated copper nanowires to provide orientational/positional control and allows end-to-end connections between nanowires, anchored to a thiol-derivatized CDO surface. The solution phase deposition of these magnetic NWs in the presences of 2500 G magnetic field allows their placement and anchoring in interconnect channels patterned in CDO. Compared to randomly deposited NWs these assemblies show enhanced conductivity and may even find applications as transparent conductors.

  • 16:30 D. Keith Roper, University of Arkansas (dkroper@uark.edu)

    Nanoantenna augment carrier dynamics and wavelength mixing in two dimensional semiconductor nanocrystals

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor (SC) nanocrystals offer compelling new functionalities like gate tunability of p-n junction, valleytronics and anti-ambipolarity as well as unique optoelectronics attributable to distinct atom-scale heterointerfaces. These features could enable atom-thin flexible integrated circuits, FETs, and closed-loop resonators. Difficulty tuning local optoelectronics, however, limits present utility of 2DSC. This work introduced electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) coordinated with Hyper Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) and discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to characterize enhanced hot carrier dynamics and wavelength mixing in 2DSC by nanoantennae (nAE). Sputtering, drop casting and electrochemical reduction were used to decorate 2DSC with nAE. EELS was used to characterize induction, damping and electromagnetic near fields of modes induced by nAE at heterointerfaces with 2DSC. Comparing measured modal damping with inelastic population decay due to radiative and intraband mechanisms simulated by DDA indicated Landau injection of local hot carriers. Quantum efficiency of carrier injection ranged from eight to over thirteen percent. A tunable femtosecond laser system for HRS was used to compare measured second order nonlinear coefficients of 2DSC and nAE-2DSC heterostructures. Nonlinear susceptibilities for 2DSC exceeding those of conventional materials by >102 pm/V; concomitant increases in second harmonic generation (SHG) intensity and two-photon absorption probability were characterized.

  • 16:50 Aida Todri-Sanial, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (aida.todri@lirmm.fr)

    Charge-based doping of carbon nanotubes as back-end-of-line interconnect material

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